Abstracts & Biographies


Wajid Ali Chishty, National Research Council Canada
        Sustainable Alternative Fuels Evaluation (SAFE) Program –
        Performance and Emissions Characterization of Alternative
        Aviation Fuels at Altitude Conditions
Rubén Del Rosario
        Fixed Wing Project, Technologies for Advanced Air Transports
Antony Evans
        Modelling Environmental & Economic Impacts of Aviation:
        The Aviation Integrated Modelling Project
John E. Green, Aircraft Research Association
        Greener by Design: Aviation and Climate –
        where do we go from here?
James I. Hileman, Federal Aviation Administration
        The Environmental Challenges facing Aviation
John Kinney
        Advanced Technology Considerations for Future Aviation
Panos Laskaridis, Cranfield University
        An Assessment of Distributed Propulsion Technology:
        Benefits, Challenges Opportunities & Synergies
Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan
        Radiative Forcing by Aircraft in Spreading Contrails and
        Large Cirrus
Domingo Sepulveda, Pratt & Whitney Canada
        Innovation, Energy Efficiency & Environmental Performance
Belur Shivashankara, Boeing Commercial Airplanes
        Boeing Technology Programs for Quieter and Efficient
        Airplane and Accelerating Technology
Cameron Tropea, TU Damstadt
        Flow Control in Aerodynamics:
        DBD Plasma Actuators for Transition Control
Jian-Ming Zhou, Pratt & Whitney Canada
        P&WC’s Perspective on Fuel & Environmental
        Challenges for Aviation


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Presentations will be added as they are received from speakers.

Wajid Ali Chishty, National Research Council Canada
Sustainable Alternative Fuels Evaluation (SAFE) Program – Performance and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Aviation Fuels at Altitude Conditions

Abstract: Drop-in alternative fuels for aviation are now a reality. These fuels not only reduce reliance on conventional petroleum-based fuels as the primary energy source for propulsion, but also offer promise for environmental sustainability. Significant and combined efforts in the last eight years from stakeholders across the complete biofuel supply chain have resulted in remarkable progress in ensuring the availability of these fuels. Fuels processed through two pathways, Fischer Tropsch (FT) and Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA), have already been certified. Another four pathway fuels are in the ASTM certification pipeline, thus providing the aviation industry with a variety of fuel options. From the bulk production perspective, tremendous progress has taken place in the same time frame where a number of demonstration and commercial facilities are either up and running or will be online shortly, with large conventional oil refineries teaming up with the developers of the various fuel pathways. On the utilization side, numerous demonstration, commercial and test flights have been conducted, noticeable among them being the recent worlds-first 100% biofuel test flight performed by the National Research Council Canada.

Although economic sustainability in the production and distribution of aviation biofuels has still not been achieved, these fuels definitely hold the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) environmental impact from aviation-related emissions. As such, targets for their mandatory use in proportion to conventional fuels and the growth of this proportion in comparison to the total fuel usage have been set by North American and European governments and by international aviation regulatory bodies like International Air Transport Association (IATA). In addition the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) through its Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) has been formalizing regulations on the emission of particulate matter (PM) and reduction in fuel burn as a means to reduce net GHG production from the use of fuel, including biofuels, in aviation. This focus from the governments and the regulating agencies has been one of the driving forces behind many current research activities.

Canada has been quite involved in the area of aviation biofuels with activities ranging in the development of feedstock, conversion of feedstock into fuels and in the industrial qualification and demonstration of these fuels both on ground and in flight. The latter activity also encompasses systematic evaluation of performance and emissions profile of biofuels.

Aviation generated emissions (although very small in comparison to other emission sources) is of concern because the majority of emissions are released at higher altitudes where their role in modifying atmospheric chemistry is prolong and leads to climate change. However, so far no real efforts have gone into collecting emissions data under either simulated-altitude conditions in a test cell or actual airborne flights and correlating it to engine performance.

The presentation will report on National Research Council Canada’s efforts in bridging the gap in the current state of knowledge on the subject. The work is being conducted as part of on-going efforts by departments (NRC, TC, DND and EC) within the Government of Canada to systematically assess regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the use of alternative aviation fuels. The presentation will share results of high altitude engine performance and emissions characteristics of biofuels obtained in test cell simulated altitude conditions and actual flight conditions.

Biography: Dr. Wajid Ali Chishty is a Senior Research Officer and Program Leader at the National Research Council Canada, managing the program called Aeronautics for the 21st Century. This program deals with maturing key technologies for the Canadian industry in the areas of Manufacturing Efficiency, Fuel Efficiency, Emissions Control and Emerging Concepts. With PhD from Virginia Tech; MSE from University of Michigan and MBA from University of Karachi, he has more than 25 years of experience in aircraft field maintenance and aero-engine overhaul; academia; and gas turbine combustion research. His research interests are in the areas of spray combustion, combustion control and alternative fuels. Wajid is a member of GARDN Scientific and Outreach Committees, Industrial Applications for Gas Turbine Committee and ASME IGTI Combustion and Fuels Committee. He has been involved in national initiatives such as the Canadian Aerospace Environmental Technologies Roadmap and National Bio-products Program.

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Rubén Del RosarioNASA
Fixed Wing Project, Technologies for Advanced Air Transports

Abstract:  The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Fixed Wing (FW) Project addresses the comprehensive challenge of enabling revolutionary energy efficiency improvements in subsonic transport aircraft combined with dramatic reductions in harmful emissions and perceived noise to facilitate sustained growth of the air transportation system. Advanced technologies and the development of unconventional aircraft systems offer the potential to achieve these improvements. Multidisciplinary advances are required in aerodynamic efficiency to reduce drag, structural efficiency to reduce aircraft empty weight, and propulsive and thermal efficiency to reduce thrust-specific energy consumption (TSEC) for overall system benefit. Additionally, advances are required to reduce perceived noise without adversely affecting drag, weight, or TSEC, and to reduce harmful emissions without adversely affecting energy efficiency or noise.

The presentation will highlight the Fixed Wing project vision of revolutionary systems and technologies needed to achieve these challenging goals.  Specifically, the primary focus of the FW Project is on the “N+3” generation; that is, vehicles that are three generations beyond the current state of the art, requiring mature technology solutions in the 2025-30 timeframe.

Ruben Del Rosario (426x640)Biography: Dr. Del Rosario is Manager of the Fixed Wing Project in NASA’s Fundamental Aeronautics Program and is responsible for developing and executing NASA’s strategy as it relates to research into commercial subsonic aircraft technologies.  He manages a project portfolio that is spread across four NASA Centers and involves close partnerships with industry, academia, and other government organizations. He also represents NASA on various US government panels including those responsible for defining the Nation’s overall research and development strategy for subsonic aircraft. Dr. Del Rosario has in the past held various management positions at NASA, including Chief of the Glenn Research Center’s Facility Management and Planning Office, Deputy Manager for the Subsonic Sector of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program, and Project Engineer for the Propulsion Element of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport Program.

Dr. Del Rosario has a BS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Puerto Rico in Mayagüez, an MS in Industrial Engineering and a PhD in Engineering from Cleveland State University.  He is an AIAA Associate Fellow, active member of the ASME International Gas Turbine Institute and a Licensed Professional Engineer in the State of Ohio.

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Antony Evans, University College London
Modelling Environmental & Economic Impacts of Aviation: The Aviation Integrated Modelling Project

Abstract:  The Aviation Integrated Modelling project has developed a policy assessment capability to enable comprehensive analyses of aviation, environment and economic interactions at local and global levels. It contains a set of inter-linked modules of the key elements relevant to this goal. These include models for aircraft/engine technologies, air transport demand, airline and airport activity and airspace operations, all coupled to global climate, local environment and economic impact modules. A major benefit of the integrated system architecture is the ability to model data flow and feedback between the modules. Policy assessment can be conducted by imposing policy effects on the upstream modules and following implications through the downstream modules to the output metrics, which can then be compared to a baseline case. Sample case studies are used to illustrate current capabilities.


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John E. Green, Aircraft Research Association
Greener by Design: Aviation and Climate – where do we go from here?

Abstract: This introductory paper reviews progress in our understanding of the impact of aviation on the atmosphere and in the development of technology and design concepts to mitigate that impact since publication in 1999 of the seminal IPCC report, Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. Understanding of the atmospheric impacts is now better but still far from complete. Demonstrated technology has not advanced as rapidly as might have been hoped, though there has been real progress. Operational, design and technological options for mitigating climate impact are more clearly understood. In the light of present understanding, the paper considers the responses available to the aircraft and engine designers, the operators and the regulators.

Biography: An aerodynamicist trained at Cambridge and the RAE, his primary field of research was the physics and prediction of boundary layers. His research was cut short by appointment as Head of the Subsonic and Supersonic Tunnels Division of RAE, and thereafter of the Propulsion and then the Noise Division, before becoming Head of Aerodynamics Department RAE. Subsequent appointments were: Director Project Time and Cost Analysis, MOD(PE); Deputy Head of British Defence Staff, Washington; Deputy Director (Aircraft), RAE; Chief Executive of the Aircraft Research Association Ltd. Honorary positions include President of the Royal Aeronautical Society (96-97) and of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (96-2000). He retired from the Aircraft Research Association in 1995 and since then has worked part-time as its consultant Chief Scientist. Since 2000 he has been a member of the Greener by Design Executive Committee.

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James I. Hileman, Federal Aviation Administration
The Environmental Challenges facing Aviation

Abstract: Major strides in lessening the environmental effects of aviation have been made over the past several decades. However, aircraft noise continues to be an objection to near term aviation growth. Aircraft emissions, as do emissions from all combustion processes, contribute to both air quality-related health effects and climate change. Noise and emissions will be the principal environmental constraints on the capacity and flexibility of the national aviation system unless they are effectively managed and mitigated. In addition, energy supply, its cost, and the relationship between the burning of fossil fuels and climate change are driving increased emphasis on the need for energy conservation and sustainable alternative fuels. This briefing will provide an update on the efforts of the FAA to address the environmental and energy challenges facing aviation.

Biography: Dr. James (Jim) Hileman is the Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Environment and Energy for the Federal Aviation Administration. In this capacity, he serves as the agency’s technical expert for basic and exploratory research, and advanced technology development focused on aircraft environmental impacts and its application to noise and emissions certification and policy, and the application of alternative fuels to mitigate environmental impacts. Prior to joining the FAA, he was the Associate Director of the Partnership for AiR Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction (PARTNER), a leading aviation cooperative research organization and an FAA Center of Excellence. As a principal research engineer within the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT, his work focused on modeling the environmental impacts of using alternative jet fuels and innovative aircraft concepts on noise, air quality and global climate change. In 2010, he received the FAA Excellence in Aviation Research award for his team’s work on alternative fuels. Previously he was a post-doctoral associate working on the Silent Aircraft Initiative, a collaborative effort between MIT and Cambridge University. In addition to ensuring the integration of the various aircraft systems as a co-chief engineer on the project, he was responsible for the three-dimensional aerodynamic design of the airframe. During this time, Dr. Hileman received a Royal Society grant to be a visiting scholar at the Cambridge University Engineering Department. Dr. Hileman holds a B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the Ohio State University.

James I. Hileman, Ph.D.
Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Environment
Office of Environment and Energy (AEE-3)
Federal Aviation Administration
800 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20591

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 John Kinney, GE Aviation
The Environmental Challenges facing Aviation

John KinneyBiography: As the Director of Advanced Technology Business Development for GE Aviation, John is responsible for working with Governments, universities, industry partners and small businesses for the development of advanced technologies that enhance GE Aviation’s product portfolio.

His 35 year career at GE Aviation includes roles in design and systems engineering, product support, human resources, marketing, sales and business development working with GE’s global customers and partners.

Prior to joining GE Aviation, John worked at McDonnell-Douglas in St. Louis, Missouri.

John holds a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Notre Dame and a Master’s Degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Cincinnati.

GE is an advanced technology, services and capital company that is dedicated worldwide to innovation in the areas of energy, health, transportation and infrastructure.

 An operating unit of GE, GE Aviation is a world-leading producer of jet engines, jet engine components, and integrated systems for commercial, military, business and general aviation aircraft in service throughout the world.  In addition, GE Aviation produces aeroderivative engines that power marine and industrial applications.

Headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, with multiple production and research facilities worldwide, GE Aviation maintains a global service network that provides comprehensive support for its product lines.

Panos Laskaridis, Cranfield University
An Assessment of Distributed Propulsion Technology: Benefits, Challenges Opportunities & Synergies

Abstract: Distributed propulsion (DP) is considered a challenging and novel concept with the potential to offer significant improvement to overall aircraft and engine performance and help the aviation industry to meet future environmental targets. The concept entails the use of multiple fans distributed around the airframe and driven by the main propulsion unit.

The main performance benefit of DP is arising from the increase in propulsive efficiency. The use of multiple distributed fans allows the decoupling of specific thrust and engine diameter allowing higher effective bypass ratios and reduced specific thrust that are not constrained any more by the physical and aerodynamic constrains and installation losses of large fan diameter engines. Additional benefits of the DP technology include, but are not limited to, improved aerodynamic performance from Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI), wake filling and thrust vectoring. Further synergies between the airframe and propulsion system can also offer benefits in nacelle aerodynamics arising from highly integrated designs and propulsion units embedded into the airframe, noise levels through atmospheric attenuation and better shielding, lighter wing structures from redistributing thrust and weight.

The DP concept is studied by an increasing number of leading industrial, research and academic organisations where different airframe (including advanced tube and wing as well as blended wing body configurations) and propulsion system architectures are considered with varying results published but with the vast majority identifying significant benefits. The exact benefits of the DP technology depend heavily on the airframe concepts considered, the architecture of the propulsion system and the detailed installation. The key enabler to realising this solution is electrical distribution that offers a high-density and high efficiency method of driving the large number of small fans. The primary technology challenges include the fundamental aspects of the integrated fan design (including number off and associated thrust per fan), the effects of boundary layer ingestion on the pressure losses of the intake and the performance of the fans, the efficiency of electric machines and their associated electrical energy transmission systems and exploitation of the DP system to gain enhanced benefits. Further synergies include opportunities to consider advanced engine cores to improve thermal efficiency and the use of alternative fuels and energy vectors (such as hydrogen) that can also provide cooling for future superconductive electrical systems. These issues are considered and discussed in this presentation.

Biography: Panos Laskaridis is the Director of the Centre for Gas Turbine Diagnostics and Life Cycle Costs at Cranfield University Propulsion Centre. He is also the technical lead of the Distributed Propulsion and engine lifing activities at Cranfield University. Panos has a strong interest in the propulsion system performance, modelling and integration. He is working closely with several international, industrial partners on the subjects of novel cycles, engine-airframe installation, power enhancement and propulsion life analysis. He has a PhD from Cranfield University and funded by Goodrich Corporation on Performance Investigation & System Integration of the More Electric Aircraft.

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Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan
Radiative forcing by aircraft in spreading contrails and large cirrus

Abstract: Radiative forcing by aircraft soot in large-scale cirrus clouds has been estimated to be both positive and negative. Here, we study different model choices for the treatment of aerosols that have led to this positive and negative forcing. We also summarize results from the coupled CAM/IMPACT/CoCiP model, which is able to treat both the formation of contrails, spreading contrails (contrail cirrus), and the effects of aircraft soot on large-scale cirrus clouds. We use this model to examine the total forcing of aircraft soot within the climate system and we evaluate the effects of the coupling of the hydrological cycle within CAM with the CoCiP contrail model. The large-scale cloud effects assume that the fraction of soot particles that have been processed through contrails are good heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN). We also discuss the effect of sulfate deposition on soot in decreasing the ability of contrail-processed soot to act as IN. The calculated total all-sky radiative climate forcing with and without coupling of CoCiP to the hydrological cycle within CAM and its range is reported. We discuss what is needed to narrow the range.

Biography: JOYCE E. PENNER is the Ralph J. Cicerone Distinguished University Professor of Atmospheric Science and Associate Chair of the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. Dr. Penner’s research focuses on improving climate models through the addition of interactive chemistry and the description of aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on the radiation balance in climate models. Dr. Penner has been a member of numerous advisory committees related to atmospheric chemistry, global change, and Earth science, and is currently Vice-Chair of the NRC Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space, charged with overseeing NASA’s Earth Science Program. She was the lead editor and a report coordinator for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (1999), was coordinating lead author for 2001 IPCC report Chapter on “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects”, was a lead author for the Chapter on Understanding and Attributing Climate Change for IPCC (2007), and a review editor for the 2013 IPCC report. Dr. Penner received a B.A. in applied mathematics from the University of California and her M.S. and Ph.D. in applied mathematics from Harvard University. She also serves as the Vice President, International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science.

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Domingo Sepulveda, Pratt & Whitney Canada
Innovation, Energy Efficiency & Environmental Performance

Abstract: Pratt & Whitney, a world leader in the manufacture of aircraft engines, has been building “Dependable Engines” for nearly 90 years, from the Wasp engine of 1926 to today’s very fuel efficient, high by-pass ratio turbofans. Significant progress has been made in engine environmental performance through the years, but as a result of today’s heightened concerns with community noise, local air quality and aviation’s impact on climate change, more needs to be done. Pratt & Whitney’s new family of engines, the Geared Turbofan, is enabled by a gear system that integrates the engine core and fan allowing for the optimization of both engine propulsive and thermal efficiency thereby providing significant reductions in fuel burn and noise. In addition, Pratt & Whitney’s advanced “Rich-Quench-Lean” combustor, the TALON X, has reduced NOx emissions to levels not thought possible for RQL combustors only a few years ago.

The GTF engine will initially go into revenue service during the 4th Q of 2014 on the Bombardier CSeries, to be followed in 2015 as the power-plant for the Airbus A320 neo family. Currently the GTF will be on five platforms, all entering revenue service by 2018.

The GTF is real, it works, and it’s ready!

08p0197Biography: Mr. Sepulveda is the Manager of Environmental Regulatory Affairs – Emissions at Pratt & Whitney, a position he has held for the last 14 years.   He has over 40 years experience in the areas of aircraft engine low emissions combustor design and development, engine-airframe integration and customer support.  Prior to accepting his position at Pratt & Whitney Mr. Sepulveda served as an Officer in the United States Air Force.  He holds six United States patents dealing with combustor and fuel system design.

In his current position, Mr. Sepulveda represents Pratt & Whitney on the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) as a member of the International Coordinating Council of the Aerospace Industries Association (ICCAIA).  He participates in various ICAO/CAEP working groups and on national and international committees dealing with technical and operational means to reduce aviation related emissions and improve air quality.  He has previously served as Emissions Focal Point for ICCAIA and is currently co-chairman of the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Aircraft Emissions Subcommittee.

Mr. Sepulveda received his Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautics and astronautics from New York University.

Manager, Environmental Regulatory Affairs – Emission
Pratt & Whitney
400 Main Street (MS 162-24)
East Hartford, CT 06108

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Belur Shivashankara, Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Technology Programs for Quieter and Efficient Airplane and Accelerating Technology

Abstract: Every new airplane that Boeing introduces is quieter than one before. This is the result of continued research focused on developing efficient and low noise technologies. Most recent success was achieved during a program called the Quiet Technology Demonstrator. Due to the success of this program, both Boeing 787 and the Boeing 747-8 are the quietest in their class. Work continues to develop new technologies in a series of flight tests known as the ecoDemonstrator program. In this talk, we will explore what it takes to make things work while satisfying many requirements and constraints.

Biography: Belur N. Shivashankara (Shankar) is responsible for leading and integrating environmentally progressive technologies at Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

Shankar joined Boeing in October 1974 after graduating from Georgia Institute of Technology with a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the school of Aerospace Engineering, specializing in engineering acoustics.

He has led several major noise technology programs supporting various airplane programs including 747,777, 737, and 787 airplanes. Recently, he directed two major full-scale flight test programs known as the Quiet Technology Demonstrator. The results from these programs, the chevrons, have been implemented on both 787 and 747-8 airplanes.

Shankar provides technical guidance and leadership to the ecoDemonstrator program that includes a series of full scale flight tests to rapidly advance environmentally progressive technologies for Boeing airplanes. The first ecoDemonstrator flight test was successfully completed in October 2012.

Shankar received his Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Aerospace Engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1973. He actively participates in international and national technical committees that guide technology development programs. He is an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Belur N. Shivashankara
Senior Technical Fellow, Environmental Performance and Noise Technology
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
P.O. Box 3707, MC 0R-MP
Seattle, Washington 98124-2207

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Cameron Tropea, TU Damstadt
Flow Control in Aerodynamics:
DBD Plasma Actuators for Transition Control

Abstract: First introduced in 1998, the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator has attained much interest in the fluid mechanics community, especially in the area of flow control. The plasma actuator is a device composed of two very thin and long (tape like) electrodes, separated by a thin insulation film covering the lower, grounded electrode and attached to an aerodynamic surface. The whole device can be built thinner than one millimeter and can be placed in a recess for integration flush with the surface. If a sufficiently high AC voltage is applied between the electrodes, the periodic electric field created above the dielectric surface causes ionization of the surrounding air molecules. The charged molecules are accelerated in the electric field of the weakly ionized plasma and, by collision with neutral air molecules, transfer momentum into the fluid. In the case of quiescent air above a solid surface, this induces a flow tangential to the wall. If the actuator is applied in a boundary-layer flow, it increases the wall-tangential momentum enabling a change of the boundary-layer properties.

In the present lecture the use of DBD plasma actuators for delaying laminar-turbulent transition will be reviewed, beginning with an introduction into the basic operating parameters and performance measures of such actuators. Two basic modes of operation will be discussed; continuous operation, whereby the added momentum into the boundary layer alters the velocity profile in such a manner to make it more stable, as confirmed both through experiment and accompanying linear stability analysis. The second mode of operation is a pulsed mode, such that the two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves which normally lead to transition are decreased in amplitude; hence delaying transition. This mode is termed active wave cancellation (AWC) and requires a closed-loop control to insure phase synchronisation with the TS disturbances. Still a third mode, arising from a combination of the two above modes will be discussed, the so-called hybrid mode. In all cases the potential for transition delay will be investigated as a function of geometric, placement and operating parameters of the actuators. Transition delay will be demonstrated for wind tunnel flows, in-flight conditions and alsousing numerical simulations.
The lecture concludes with some estimates of efficiency and effectiveness and an outlook towards future work with DBD plasma actuators.

Keywords : flow control, plasma actuators, transition control, boundary layer

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Jian-Ming Zhou, Pratt & Whitney Canada
P&WC’s Perspective on Fuel & Environmental Challenges for Aviation

Abstract: The presentation will focus on future aircraft engine combustor product opportunities, particulate pollutant studies and measurement, and work done on biofuels. Work done in collaboration with suppliers, research institutions, and universities will be discussed.

Biography: Jian-Ming (Jimmy) joined P&WC in 1994 as an aerodynamicist. He worked in the Combustion Component Center for 17 years working on various engine platforms performing combustion aero and system work, taking lead on small fan programs and undertaking some research and methods development assignments. He supported many combustion component tests such as, emissions, fuel spray, thermal mapping, and operability testing. He became manager of Combustion Aerodynamics in 2012.


B.Sc. in Applied Mechanics (1984, Fudan University, China)
M. Sc. In Mechanical Engineering (1990, University of British Columbia, Canada)
Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering (1994, University of British Columbia, Canada)

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