Wajid Ali Chishty, National Research Council Canada
Sustainable Alternative Fuels Evaluation (SAFE) Program –
Performance and Emissions Characterization of Alternative
Aviation Fuels at Altitude Conditions
John E. Green, Aircraft Research Association
Greener by Design: Aviation and Climate –
where do we go from here?
James I. Hileman, Federal Aviation Administration
The Environmental Challenges facing Aviation
Panos Laskaridis, Cranfield University
An Assessment of Distributed Propulsion Technology:
Benefits, Challenges Opportunities & Synergies
Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan
Radiative Forcing by Aircraft in Spreading Contrails and
Domingo Sepulveda, Pratt & Whitney Canada
Innovation, Energy Efficiency & Environmental Performance
Belur Shivashankara, Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Technology Programs for Quieter and Efficient
Airplane and Accelerating Technology
Jian-Ming Zhou, Pratt & Whitney Canada
P&WC’s Perspective on Fuel & Environmental
Challenges for Aviation
Wajid Ali Chishty, National Research Council Canada
Sustainable Alternative Fuels Evaluation (SAFE) Program – Performance and Emissions Characterization of Alternative Aviation Fuels at Altitude Conditions
Abstract: Drop-in alternative fuels for aviation are now a reality. These fuels not only reduce reliance on conventional petroleum-based fuels as the primary energy source for propulsion, but also offer promise for environmental sustainability. Significant and combined efforts in the last eight years from stakeholders across the complete biofuel supply chain have resulted in remarkable progress in ensuring the availability of these fuels. Fuels processed through two pathways, Fischer Tropsch (FT) and Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA), have already been certified. Another four pathway fuels are in the ASTM certification pipeline, thus providing the aviation industry with a variety of fuel options. From the bulk production perspective, tremendous progress has taken place in the same time frame where a number of demonstration and commercial facilities are either up and running or will be online shortly, with large conventional oil refineries teaming up with the developers of the various fuel pathways. On the utilization side, numerous demonstration, commercial and test flights have been conducted, noticeable among them being the recent worlds-first 100% biofuel test flight performed by the National Research Council Canada.
Although economic sustainability in the production and distribution of aviation biofuels has still not been achieved, these fuels definitely hold the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) environmental impact from aviation-related emissions. As such, targets for their mandatory use in proportion to conventional fuels and the growth of this proportion in comparison to the total fuel usage have been set by North American and European governments and by international aviation regulatory bodies like International Air Transport Association (IATA). In addition the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) through its Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) has been formalizing regulations on the emission of particulate matter (PM) and reduction in fuel burn as a means to reduce net GHG production from the use of fuel, including biofuels, in aviation. This focus from the governments and the regulating agencies has been one of the driving forces behind many current research activities.
Canada has been quite involved in the area of aviation biofuels with activities ranging in the development of feedstock, conversion of feedstock into fuels and in the industrial qualification and demonstration of these fuels both on ground and in flight. The latter activity also encompasses systematic evaluation of performance and emissions profile of biofuels.
Aviation generated emissions (although very small in comparison to other emission sources) is of concern because the majority of emissions are released at higher altitudes where their role in modifying atmospheric chemistry is prolong and leads to climate change. However, so far no real efforts have gone into collecting emissions data under either simulated-altitude conditions in a test cell or actual airborne flights and correlating it to engine performance.
The presentation will report on National Research Council Canada’s efforts in bridging the gap in the current state of knowledge on the subject. The work is being conducted as part of on-going efforts by departments (NRC, TC, DND and EC) within the Government of Canada to systematically assess regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the use of alternative aviation fuels. The presentation will share results of high altitude engine performance and emissions characteristics of biofuels obtained in test cell simulated altitude conditions and actual flight conditions.
Biography: Dr. Wajid Ali Chishty is a Senior Research Officer and Program Leader at the National Research Council Canada, managing the program called Aeronautics for the 21st Century. This program deals with maturing key technologies for the Canadian industry in the areas of Manufacturing Efficiency, Fuel Efficiency, Emissions Control and Emerging Concepts. With PhD from Virginia Tech; MSE from University of Michigan and MBA from University of Karachi, he has more than 25 years of experience in aircraft field maintenance and aero-engine overhaul; academia; and gas turbine combustion research. His research interests are in the areas of spray combustion, combustion control and alternative fuels. Wajid is a member of GARDN Scientific and Outreach Committees, Industrial Applications for Gas Turbine Committee and ASME IGTI Combustion and Fuels Committee. He has been involved in national initiatives such as the Canadian Aerospace Environmental Technologies Roadmap and National Bio-products Program.
Abstract: This introductory paper reviews progress in our understanding of the impact of aviation on the atmosphere and in the development of technology and design concepts to mitigate that impact since publication in 1999 of the seminal IPCC report, Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. Understanding of the atmospheric impacts is now better but still far from complete. Demonstrated technology has not advanced as rapidly as might have been hoped, though there has been real progress. Operational, design and technological options for mitigating climate impact are more clearly understood. In the light of present understanding, the paper considers the responses available to the aircraft and engine designers, the operators and the regulators.
Biography: An aerodynamicist trained at Cambridge and the RAE, his primary field of research was the physics and prediction of boundary layers. His research was cut short by appointment as Head of the Subsonic and Supersonic Tunnels Division of RAE, and thereafter of the Propulsion and then the Noise Division, before becoming Head of Aerodynamics Department RAE. Subsequent appointments were: Director Project Time and Cost Analysis, MOD(PE); Deputy Head of British Defence Staff, Washington; Deputy Director (Aircraft), RAE; Chief Executive of the Aircraft Research Association Ltd. Honorary positions include President of the Royal Aeronautical Society (96-97) and of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (96-2000). He retired from the Aircraft Research Association in 1995 and since then has worked part-time as its consultant Chief Scientist. Since 2000 he has been a member of the Greener by Design Executive Committee.
Abstract: Major strides in lessening the environmental effects of aviation have been made over the past several decades. However, aircraft noise continues to be an objection to near term aviation growth. Aircraft emissions, as do emissions from all combustion processes, contribute to both air quality-related health effects and climate change. Noise and emissions will be the principal environmental constraints on the capacity and flexibility of the national aviation system unless they are effectively managed and mitigated. In addition, energy supply, its cost, and the relationship between the burning of fossil fuels and climate change are driving increased emphasis on the need for energy conservation and sustainable alternative fuels. This briefing will provide an update on the efforts of the FAA to address the environmental and energy challenges facing aviation.
Biography: Dr. James (Jim) Hileman is the Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Environment and Energy for the Federal Aviation Administration. In this capacity, he serves as the agency’s technical expert for basic and exploratory research, and advanced technology development focused on aircraft environmental impacts and its application to noise and emissions certification and policy, and the application of alternative fuels to mitigate environmental impacts. Prior to joining the FAA, he was the Associate Director of the Partnership for AiR Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction (PARTNER), a leading aviation cooperative research organization and an FAA Center of Excellence. As a principal research engineer within the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT, his work focused on modeling the environmental impacts of using alternative jet fuels and innovative aircraft concepts on noise, air quality and global climate change. In 2010, he received the FAA Excellence in Aviation Research award for his team’s work on alternative fuels. Previously he was a post-doctoral associate working on the Silent Aircraft Initiative, a collaborative effort between MIT and Cambridge University. In addition to ensuring the integration of the various aircraft systems as a co-chief engineer on the project, he was responsible for the three-dimensional aerodynamic design of the airframe. During this time, Dr. Hileman received a Royal Society grant to be a visiting scholar at the Cambridge University Engineering Department. Dr. Hileman holds a B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from the Ohio State University.
James I. Hileman, Ph.D.
Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Environment
Office of Environment and Energy (AEE-3)
Federal Aviation Administration
800 Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20591
Abstract: Distributed propulsion (DP) is considered a challenging and novel concept with the potential to offer significant improvement to overall aircraft and engine performance and help the aviation industry to meet future environmental targets. The concept entails the use of multiple fans distributed around the airframe and driven by the main propulsion unit.
The main performance benefit of DP is arising from the increase in propulsive efficiency. The use of multiple distributed fans allows the decoupling of specific thrust and engine diameter allowing higher effective bypass ratios and reduced specific thrust that are not constrained any more by the physical and aerodynamic constrains and installation losses of large fan diameter engines. Additional benefits of the DP technology include, but are not limited to, improved aerodynamic performance from Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI), wake filling and thrust vectoring. Further synergies between the airframe and propulsion system can also offer benefits in nacelle aerodynamics arising from highly integrated designs and propulsion units embedded into the airframe, noise levels through atmospheric attenuation and better shielding, lighter wing structures from redistributing thrust and weight.
The DP concept is studied by an increasing number of leading industrial, research and academic organisations where different airframe (including advanced tube and wing as well as blended wing body configurations) and propulsion system architectures are considered with varying results published but with the vast majority identifying significant benefits. The exact benefits of the DP technology depend heavily on the airframe concepts considered, the architecture of the propulsion system and the detailed installation. The key enabler to realising this solution is electrical distribution that offers a high-density and high efficiency method of driving the large number of small fans. The primary technology challenges include the fundamental aspects of the integrated fan design (including number off and associated thrust per fan), the effects of boundary layer ingestion on the pressure losses of the intake and the performance of the fans, the efficiency of electric machines and their associated electrical energy transmission systems and exploitation of the DP system to gain enhanced benefits. Further synergies include opportunities to consider advanced engine cores to improve thermal efficiency and the use of alternative fuels and energy vectors (such as hydrogen) that can also provide cooling for future superconductive electrical systems. These issues are considered and discussed in this presentation.
Biography: Panos Laskaridis is the Director of the Centre for Gas Turbine Diagnostics and Life Cycle Costs at Cranfield University Propulsion Centre. He is also the technical lead of the Distributed Propulsion and engine lifing activities at Cranfield University. Panos has a strong interest in the propulsion system performance, modelling and integration. He is working closely with several international, industrial partners on the subjects of novel cycles, engine-airframe installation, power enhancement and propulsion life analysis. He has a PhD from Cranfield University and funded by Goodrich Corporation on Performance Investigation & System Integration of the More Electric Aircraft.
Abstract: Radiative forcing by aircraft soot in large-scale cirrus clouds has been estimated to be both positive and negative. Here, we study different model choices for the treatment of aerosols that have led to this positive and negative forcing. We also summarize results from the coupled CAM/IMPACT/CoCiP model, which is able to treat both the formation of contrails, spreading contrails (contrail cirrus), and the effects of aircraft soot on large-scale cirrus clouds. We use this model to examine the total forcing of aircraft soot within the climate system and we evaluate the effects of the coupling of the hydrological cycle within CAM with the CoCiP contrail model. The large-scale cloud effects assume that the fraction of soot particles that have been processed through contrails are good heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN). We also discuss the effect of sulfate deposition on soot in decreasing the ability of contrail-processed soot to act as IN. The calculated total all-sky radiative climate forcing with and without coupling of CoCiP to the hydrological cycle within CAM and its range is reported. We discuss what is needed to narrow the range.
Biography: JOYCE E. PENNER is the Ralph J. Cicerone Distinguished University Professor of Atmospheric Science and Associate Chair of the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences at the University of Michigan. Dr. Penner’s research focuses on improving climate models through the addition of interactive chemistry and the description of aerosols and their direct and indirect effects on the radiation balance in climate models. Dr. Penner has been a member of numerous advisory committees related to atmospheric chemistry, global change, and Earth science, and is currently Vice-Chair of the NRC Committee on Earth Science and Applications from Space, charged with overseeing NASA’s Earth Science Program. She was the lead editor and a report coordinator for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (1999), was coordinating lead author for 2001 IPCC report Chapter on “Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects”, was a lead author for the Chapter on Understanding and Attributing Climate Change for IPCC (2007), and a review editor for the 2013 IPCC report. Dr. Penner received a B.A. in applied mathematics from the University of California and her M.S. and Ph.D. in applied mathematics from Harvard University. She also serves as the Vice President, International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science.
Abstract: Pratt & Whitney, a world leader in the manufacture of aircraft engines, has been building “Dependable Engines” for nearly 90 years, from the Wasp engine of 1926 to today’s very fuel efficient, high by-pass ratio turbofans. Significant progress has been made in engine environmental performance through the years, but as a result of today’s heightened concerns with community noise, local air quality and aviation’s impact on climate change, more needs to be done. Pratt & Whitney’s new family of engines, the Geared Turbofan, is enabled by a gear system that integrates the engine core and fan allowing for the optimization of both engine propulsive and thermal efficiency thereby providing significant reductions in fuel burn and noise. In addition, Pratt & Whitney’s advanced “Rich-Quench-Lean” combustor, the TALON X, has reduced NOx emissions to levels not thought possible for RQL combustors only a few years ago.
The GTF engine will initially go into revenue service during the 4th Q of 2014 on the Bombardier CSeries, to be followed in 2015 as the power-plant for the Airbus A320 neo family. Currently the GTF will be on five platforms, all entering revenue service by 2018.
The GTF is real, it works, and it’s ready!
Biography: Mr. Sepulveda is the Manager of Environmental Regulatory Affairs – Emissions at Pratt & Whitney, a position he has held for the last 14 years. He has over 40 years experience in the areas of aircraft engine low emissions combustor design and development, engine-airframe integration and customer support. Prior to accepting his position at Pratt & Whitney Mr. Sepulveda served as an Officer in the United States Air Force. He holds six United States patents dealing with combustor and fuel system design.
In his current position, Mr. Sepulveda represents Pratt & Whitney on the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) as a member of the International Coordinating Council of the Aerospace Industries Association (ICCAIA). He participates in various ICAO/CAEP working groups and on national and international committees dealing with technical and operational means to reduce aviation related emissions and improve air quality. He has previously served as Emissions Focal Point for ICCAIA and is currently co-chairman of the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Aircraft Emissions Subcommittee.
Mr. Sepulveda received his Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautics and astronautics from New York University.
Manager, Environmental Regulatory Affairs – Emission
Pratt & Whitney
400 Main Street (MS 162-24)
East Hartford, CT 06108
Abstract: Every new airplane that Boeing introduces is quieter than one before. This is the result of continued research focused on developing efficient and low noise technologies. Most recent success was achieved during a program called the Quiet Technology Demonstrator. Due to the success of this program, both Boeing 787 and the Boeing 747-8 are the quietest in their class. Work continues to develop new technologies in a series of flight tests known as the ecoDemonstrator program. In this talk, we will explore what it takes to make things work while satisfying many requirements and constraints.
Biography: Belur N. Shivashankara (Shankar) is responsible for leading and integrating environmentally progressive technologies at Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
Shankar joined Boeing in October 1974 after graduating from Georgia Institute of Technology with a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the school of Aerospace Engineering, specializing in engineering acoustics.
He has led several major noise technology programs supporting various airplane programs including 747,777, 737, and 787 airplanes. Recently, he directed two major full-scale flight test programs known as the Quiet Technology Demonstrator. The results from these programs, the chevrons, have been implemented on both 787 and 747-8 airplanes.
Shankar provides technical guidance and leadership to the ecoDemonstrator program that includes a series of full scale flight tests to rapidly advance environmentally progressive technologies for Boeing airplanes. The first ecoDemonstrator flight test was successfully completed in October 2012.
Shankar received his Doctor of Philosophy Degree in Aerospace Engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 1973. He actively participates in international and national technical committees that guide technology development programs. He is an Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Belur N. Shivashankara
Senior Technical Fellow, Environmental Performance and Noise Technology
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
P.O. Box 3707, MC 0R-MP
Seattle, Washington 98124-2207
Abstract: The presentation will focus on future aircraft engine combustor product opportunities, particulate pollutant studies and measurement, and work done on biofuels. Work done in collaboration with suppliers, research institutions, and universities will be discussed.
Biography: Jian-Ming (Jimmy) joined P&WC in 1994 as an aerodynamicist. He worked in the Combustion Component Center for 17 years working on various engine platforms performing combustion aero and system work, taking lead on small fan programs and undertaking some research and methods development assignments. He supported many combustion component tests such as, emissions, fuel spray, thermal mapping, and operability testing. He became manager of Combustion Aerodynamics in 2012.
B.Sc. in Applied Mechanics (1984, Fudan University, China)
M. Sc. In Mechanical Engineering (1990, University of British Columbia, Canada)
Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering (1994, University of British Columbia, Canada)