Summer School on Sustainable Aviation

Every year, UTIAS runs a Summer School on Sustainable Aviation in late May or early June. Courses are taught by international experts on an annually selected theme relevant to sustainable aircraft development.

2015 Gas Turbine Combustion

Participants from other units at the University of Toronto, as well as those external to the University, are welcome to attend, subject to the availability of space. UTIAS CREATE trainees are required to attend this summer school, and other UTIAS students are strongly encouraged to attend. The topics covered previously and to be covered in the future are:

2013 Atmospheric physics and life cycle assessment
2014 Aeroacoustics
2015 Gas Turbine Combustion
2016 Active Flow Control for Drag and Noise Reduction

Gulder-Combustion & Propulsion-Laminar diffusion flame

2015 Schedule
Abstracts
Fees
Venue
Accommodations
Organizing Committee
Contact Information


2015 Schedule

 

Monday, May 25, 2015

9:00am – 9:10am Introduction, David Zingg
9:10am – 10:30am Combustion dynamics and control with applications to gas turbine combustors
Sebastien Candel, Ecole Centrale Paris, EM2C, CNRS
10:30am – 10:40am Break with refreshments
10:40am – 12:00pm Combustion dynamics and control with applications to gas turbine combustors
Sebastien Candel, Ecole Centrale Paris, EM2C, CNRS
12:00pm – 1:30pm Lunch will be provided
1:30pm – 3:00pm Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Alternative Fuel Considerations
Med Colket, Senior Fellow, Retired, United Technologies Research Center
3:00pm – 3:10pm Break with refreshments
3:00pm – 4:30pm Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Alternative Fuel Considerations
Med Colket, Senior Fellow, Retired, United Technologies Research Center

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

9:00am – 10:30am Modeling and Computational Challenges in the Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Systems
Suresh Menon, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
10:30am – 10:40am Break with refreshments
10:40am – 12:00pm

 

Modeling and Computational Challenges in the Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Systems
Suresh Menon, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
12:00pm – 1:30pm Lunch will be provided
1:30pm – 3:00pm Laser and Optical Measurements in Engine-Relevant Combustors
Adam Steinberg, Univeristy of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies 
3:00pm – 3:10pm Break with refreshments
3:00pm – 4:30pm Laser and Optical Measurements in Engine-Relevant Combustors
Adam Steinberg, Univeristy of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies 

 


Abstracts

 

Combustion dynamics and control with applications to gas turbine combustors     

Sébastien Candel, Ecole Centrale Paris, EM2C, CNRS

The course provides an introduction to the analysis of combustion dynamics problems. A brief tutorial on acoustic analysis is first proposed together with a review of early work on combustion instabilities and their modeling using sensitive time lag concepts. The course is then focused on perturbed flame dynamics, flame transfer functions concepts modeling and experimental determination, nonlinear flame dynamics using a unified flame describing function framework. The FDF is then used to analyze limit cycles, mode switching and nonlinear triggering phenomena allowing comparisons between experimental data and modeling results. The dynamics of swirling flames is then examined because of its considerable importance for gas turbine applications. It is shown that mode conversion takes place when acoustic perturbations impinge on the swirler. The flame then responds to a combination of axial and azimuthal velocity perturbations with a significant effect on the flame transfer function. The case of systems including multiple injectors is then considered and azimuthal coupling in annular combustors is analyzed using experiments carried out recently in laboratory scale combustors. Passive and active control methods are then reviewed. Concepts will be illustrated with experimental data and numerical simulations.

Sébastien Candel holds an engineering degree from Ecole Centrale Paris, a PhD from the California Institute of Technology in 1972, and a Docteur ès Sciences degree in 1977 from the University of Paris 6. Professor at Ecole Centrale Paris from 1978 to 2014 and professor at Institut Universitaire de France from 2001 to 2011, he is now University professor emeritus. His research in the domains of combustion and aeroacoustics, described in more than 190 articles, has applications in energy and aerospace propulsion. Among many distinctions, Sébastien Candel has been the recipient the Marcel Dassault Grand Prize of the French Academy of Sciences, the Pendray Aerospace Literature award of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the Distinguished Alumni Award of Caltech, the silver medal and the Zeldovich gold medal both of the Combustion Institute. Sébastien Candel is a member of the French Académie des Sciences and its Vice-president in 2015 and 2016, a member of the Académie des Technologies, of the Air and Space Academy and a foreign member of the National Academy of Engineering of the United States.

 

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Alternative Fuel Considerations

Med Colket, Senior Fellow, Retired, United Technologies Research Center

This presentation will cover two main areas: (1) the formation and destruction mechanisms of NOx, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates emitted from aircraft gas turbine engines and (2) issues and concerns with the use of alternative fuels in gas turbine engines. The talk will begin with background information on international standards on regulations of emissions, their evolution in time, as well as general constraints for a design engineer in trying to meet simultaneously safety, durability, performance, cost, emission, etc., requirements. At least two main combustor architectures will be discussed and contrasted with respect to their basic objectives and operation. These two are rich-quench-lean (RQL) and lean-direct-injection (LDI). Fundamental combustion processes will be briefly reviewed, followed by specific discussion on the generation of each of the regulated emissions. Strategies for control of such emissions will be discussed.

The last part of the talk will be on alternative fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines. Practical limitations to the character of traditional jet fuel will be reviewed. A range of possible processing methods and feed stocks will be highlighted. Recently approved processes for selected alternative fuels and ASTM qualification processes will be discussed.

Finally, a vision of how these topics will be impacted by or will constrain the desire for yet higher cycle efficiency will be presented.

 

Modeling and Computational Challenges in the Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Systems

Suresh Menon, School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

Simulation of turbulent combustion in operational devices (gas turbines, rockets, scramjets) is challenging due to the wide range of scales involved: from the molecular scales where mixing and combustion occurs to the large-scale of the device that control the global processes.  In addition to fluid, acoustic and geometrical scales, finite-rate kinetics requirements bring a wide range of chemical time scales that have to be included for fully coupled simulations. Fuel chemistry and proper coupling with turbulence is now becoming important due to interest alternate fuels (e.g., biofuels, syngas, etc.). Various challenges especially exist at the operational “edge”, such as combustion instability, lean blowout, ignition/extinction/relight, and pollutant formation. For example, predicting combustion dynamics (stability) in gaseous and liquid fueled combustors is difficult due to many unknowns in the experiments and in the modeling strategies. Interactions occur over the entire range of spatial (and associated temporal) scales, and models optimized to work in stable combustion or canonical flames fail when dynamical processes such as combustion instability needs to be simulated. For next generation low-emission gas turbines used for power generation, simulations must predict very lean combustion and sensitivity to instability. We discuss the background of some key numerical methods employed, and highlight their underlying strengths and limitations. We follow it with discussion of some modeling strategies currently employed with specific relevance to realistic combustion devices, such as swirl stabilized gas turbines, supersonic combustion ramjets and high-pressure supercritical rocket engines. Some examples of past successes and failures and physical insight obtained from these results will be noted. We also discuss how some of these challenges can be addressed within a single adaptive multi-scale simulation framework. Finally, challenges in terms of massively parallel processing, big data management and post and in-situ data processing using next generation computer architecture will be highlighted.

Laser and Optical Measurements in Engine-Relevant Combustors

Adam Steinberg, Univeristy of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies 

The increasing complexity of gas turbine combustion architectures presents challenges for heuristic design tools and numerical simulations. This is compounded by a lack of high-fidelity experimental data with which to anchor and rigorously test these tools. Laser and optical measurement techniques, common in academic combustion research, can theoretically be used to obtain considerable physical insight and model validation data. However, these techniques traditionally have not been applied to configurations or conditions directly corresponding to gas turbine operation due to various theoretical and practical issues.

This talk will explore recent developments in the application of laser and optical diagnostics for engine-relevant pressures, temperatures, and flow configurations. Diagnostics that will be addressed include chemiluminescence, particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser induced fluorescence (LIF), laser Rayleigh scattering, Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser induced phosphorescence (LIP), laser absorption spectroscopy, and several others. Recent capabilities and results will be reviewed, along with limitations, uncertainty, and potential future developments.


Fees

   Early Bird
(ends April 15)
Standard
Students   $200 $300
Academic or
Industrial Guests
  $450 $600

 


Venue

All sessions will take place in the main lecture hall at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies.

Lecture Hall
Institute for Aerospace Studies
University of Toronto
4925 Dufferin Street
Toronto, ON
M3H 5T6

Tourist Information
http://www.toronto.com/
http://www.seetorontonow.com/


Accommodations

Novotel

Conference delegates are encouraged stay at the Novotel North York. Situated in Uptown Toronto, Novotel Toronto North York offers a modern destination that has upscale amenities, such as complimentary WiFi, a full service restaurant, and an indoor saltwater pool. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) has secured a corporate rate of $159* per night.

Novotel North York
3 Park Home Avenue
North York, Ontario, M2N 6L3
Tel: 416-733-2929

Check-in time is after 3:00 pm and check-out time is before 12 Noon
Parking: $17.00 with in and out privileges
Reservations: Please call Novotel directly to secure reservations, 416-733-2929 on or before April 28th, 2015 . The rooms are booked under the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies.

* All rates are subject to applicable taxes
* Quoted rates are not guaranteed after 4:00pm on April, 28th, 2014


Organizing Committee

 

Georgette Stubbs
Administrator for the  Centre for Research in Sustainable Aviation,
stu...@utias.utoronto.ca
David Zingg
Director, University of Toronto Institute
for Aerospace Studies and Centre for Research in Sustainable Aviation
d...@oddjob.utias.utoronto.ca
Philippe Lavoie
Associate Director, Centre for
Research in Sustainable Aviation
lav...@utias.utoronto.ca
Craig Steeves
Associate Director, Centre for Research in Sustainable Aviation
cste...@utias.utoronto.ca

 


Contact Information

Please direct general inquires to Georgette Stubbs.

Georgette Stubbs
Administrator for the Centre for Research in Sustainable Aviation
Phone: 416-667-7796
stu...@utias.utoronto.ca
sust...@utias.utoronto.ca

Mailing Addresss:
Centre for Research in Sustainable Aviation
Institute for Aerospace Studies
University of Toronto
4925 Dufferin Street
Toronto, ON M3H 5T6